Sources of Homonymy

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Homonymy

Is the lexical phenomenon when words both are _________and ______________alike; or __________alike and _____________differently, or _______________alike and ______ differently. Homonyms are words which are identical ______________________________, or, at least, in one of these aspects, but different in their_________________.
E.g. bank________________________,bank_______________________________.There are different sources of homonyms:
1) __________________________ which words undergo in the course of their historical develop­ment. In this case homonyms may appear due to the convergent sound development, when different words in the course of language development coincided in their sound form, e.g. son and sun
2) _________________is another source of homonyms. This word may, in the final stage of its phonetic adaptation, duplicate in form ei­ther a native word or another borrowing. In the pair peace, n. — piece, n., the first originates from O. F. pais, and the second from O. F. (< Gaulish) pettia. Bank, n. ("a shore") is a native word, and bank, n. ("a financial institution") is an Italian borrowing. Such homonyms are called __________. 3) ___________________ also contributes significantly to the growth of homonymy, and the most important type in this respect is _________________. Such pairs of words as comb, n. — to comb, v., pale, adj. — to pale, v., to make, v. — make, n. are numerous in the vo­cabulary. 4) _______________________ is a further type of word-building which increases the number of homonyms. E. g., fan, n. in the sense of "an enthusiastic admirer of some kind of sport or of an actor, singer, etc." is a shorten­ing produced from fanatic. Its homonym is a Latin borrowing fan, n. which denotes an implement for waving lightly to produce a cool cur­rent of air. 5) Words made by ________________________can also form pairs of homonyms with other words: e.g., mew, n. ("the sound a cat makes") — mew, n. ("a sea gull") — mew, n. ("a pen in which poultry is fattened") — mews ("small terraced houses in Cen­tral London"). 6) Two or more homonyms can origi­nate from different meanings of the same word when, for some reason, the semantic structure of the word breaks into several parts. This type of formation of homonyms is called split of polysemy (_____________ ______________________________________________________________________). Let us consider the history of three homonyms: spring, n. — _________________________________________, spring, n. — _________________________________________________ spring, n. — ___________________________________________________. Historically, all the three nouns originate from the same verb with the meaning "to jump, to leap" (O. E. springan), so that the meaning of the first homonym is the oldest. The meanings of the second and third homonyms were originally based on ____________. At the head of a stream the water sometimes leaps up out of the earth, so that metaphorically such a place could well be described as a leap. On the other hand, the season of the year following winter could be poetically defined as a leap from darkness and cold into sunlight and life. Classification of HomonymsHomonyms are generally classified into 3 main types:1) Homonyms proper- which are the same in _____________________________, e.g. ________________________________________________________________________2) Homophones - Homonyms which are the same in __________ but different in _______________, e.g. bean, n. and been, past part, of to be are homophones. 3) Homographs. These are words which are the same in ____________________ but different in ___________. E.g. Bow [bau], v. - to incline the head or body in salutation, bow [bou], n. - a flexible strip of wood for propelling arrows; This subdivision of homonyms into homonyms proper, homo­phones and homographs is certainly not precise enough and does not reflect certain important features of these words, and, most important of all, their status as parts of speech. Accordingly, Professor A. I. Smirnitsky classified homonyms into two large classes (he took into consideration the morphological aspect): 1) lexical, 2) lexico-grammatical Lexical homonymshe subdivided into: 1) _______ homonyms, 2) _________ homonyms Full lexical homonyms are ___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ E,g, match, n. - a game, a contest, match, n. - a short piece of wood used for producing fire; Partial homonyms are subdivided into three subgroups: A. _______________________________________________homonyms are words which belong to the same category of a part of speech. Their paradigms have one identical form, excluding their initial form: to found, v., found, v. (past indef., past part, of to find); B. _______________________________________________ are words of different categories of a part of speech which have one identical form in their paradigms. E.g. rose, n., rose, v. (past indef. of to rise); C. _____________________________________________ are words of the same category of a part of speech which are identical only in their corresponding forms. E.g.: lie (lay, lain), v., to lie (lied, lied); R.S.Ginsburg suggested another classification of honomyms: 1. Lexico-grammatical homonyms are homonyms that ______________________________________________________________________________, e.g. seal – to seal2. Lexicalare homonyms that ________________________________________, but their part-of-speech meanings and the meanings of all their grammatical forms are ______________, e.g. seal – animal and seal – a design printed on paper3. Grammatical –are those that differ only in__________________________, e.g. sisters - sister’s – sisters’ Another classification was suggested by the representatives of Leningrad linguistic school Vorno and Kashcheyeva. They differentiated lexical, grammatical and morphological homonyms.1)Lexicalare homonyms that _____________________________________________________________________ (bar – брусок, пивна, адвокатура, plant - plant)2)Grammatical –are those which are pronounced _________but belong to different ________________________. (e.g. light (n) – light (adj.))(those that are resulted from ___________________)3) Morphological -are pronounced _________, but are absolutely different words which coincide only in some _________________________________ (e.g. maid - made)  

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